For example, simulation is an instructional method, but high-fidelity simulation could be considered an enhancement of low-fidelity simulation. To this end, there appear to be three variables (other than the medium) relevant to the design and research of CBL programs: configuration, instructional method, and presentation. ”1 What studies should be done in CBL? Many bachelor’s programs in this discipline emphasize practical training, and learners often complete internships and lab work during their studies. And sometimes jobs that are computer-science heavy, like web development or software engineering, are referred to as IT work. Think about using a carpool more often than commuting to work if you want to cut the amount of fuel you use. Areas which are developing themselves with the help of computer technology: we have many areas which are getting advanced and developing themselves by using computer technology. In contrast, even the most careful study design cannot account for variance within and among interventions using different media. Some variance is random. The difficulties with variation in participants (including unequal enthusiasm for the interventions) in large comparative trials in medical education have been discussed elsewhere.8 Bias in the outcome measure is a third potential source of variance in education research.1 Although participants and outcomes can potentially dominate the effects of the educational intervention, they can be addressed in the study design.
To answer this question I will first present a framework for systematic, meaningful comparisons of computer-based instructional design, and then outline additional interventions and outcomes that merit rigorous CBL-CBL research. In case you have forgotten to keep it updated, how will it be able to distinguish the latest forms? Barring technical complications, the computer won’t have bad days and won’t play favorites, but instead will consistently deliver the same message and response to every learner. Such technical considerations are beyond the scope of this essay. ”8 The first part of this suggestion-systematic variation in the intervention, or reductionism-will constitute much of the remainder of this essay. Kirtland was the first college in Michigan to obtain this cutting-edge technology. Department of Education. DO-IT is a collaboration of UW Information Technology and the Colleges of Engineering and Education at the University of Washington. The department also provides flexible learning options. Gagne et al’s nine instructional events12 provide one framework for this level: attention-getting activities, objectives, activation of prior learning, presentation of distinctive features, learning guidance, performance, feedback, assessment, and enhancing transfer. Specific instructional methods include questions, cases, simulations, interactive models, analogies, group discussion and activities, construction of databases or concept maps, and feedback.
Instructional methods (also called instructional strategies) are techniques that support learning processes. With some creativity, each of these methods could be applied-alone or in combination-to most media or configurations. For face-to-face teaching, for example, configurations include lecture, small-group discussion, problem-based learning, and bedside teaching. CBL configurations often parallel those of face-to-face settings. Examples of media-comparative research in CBL abound,5 and I have been guilty of reporting such comparisons.9 However, I have come to believe in the accuracy of previous proposals that media-comparative research be abandoned. What, then, should be the direction of further CBL research? Other learning models such as Merrill’s first principles13 (activation, demonstration, application, and integration in the setting of real-world problems) and the cognitive flexibility theory described by Spiro et al14 are particularly relevant to CBL. For CBL and WBL, presentation variables include font, hyperlinks (number and type), multimedia (illustrations, radiographs, audio, video), simulation fidelity, and other means of interactivity to enhance learning. This da ta was g ener at ed with GSA Con te nt Gener ator Demoversion!
CBL research has an advantage here over many other educational interventions. There are other differences in CBL and WBL, such as the computer operating system (e.g., Windows, Macintosh, UNIX) and the programming/markup language (e.g., HTML, XML, Perl, etc.). For example, in comparing one Web programming language to another the technical differences (which can be significant) are only relevant to the learner insofar as they have bearing on the configuration, instructional methods, or presentation of the course. The Learn and Earn program is sponsored by the West Virginia Community and Technical College System, and is part of the Workforce Development Initiative Program. Below are some of the merits of integrating education in the professional development for teachers. This means that IT experts with experience in the field can move up in their positions, and furthering your education can give you a leg up on advancement. Norman8 proposes two factors that distinguish the kind of medical education research that is likely to provide meaningful results. It is also reported that external factors such as lack of time, insufficient computer facilities, rigid school curricula and textbooks and lack of administrative support negatively influence the implementation of CALL in the classroom. There is a natural order or nesting (see Figure 1), such that defining an intervention at an earlier level (to the left in Figure 1) will constrain the implementation and options at later levels.